Raccoglitore di potenzialità per il Ventunesimo Secolo – Guardate il 2018

13 10 2018

2018

1993:
The European Economic Community eliminates trade barriers and creates a European single market.
The Braer Storm of January 1993, the most intense extratropical cyclone on record for the northern Atlantic Ocean, occurs.
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is signed.
IBM announces a $4.97 billion loss for 1992, the largest single-year corporate loss in United States history to date.
( Facebook 2018 perde 120 miliardi in valore di mercato )
In Turkey, thousands protest the murder of journalist Uğur Mumcu.
Members of the right-wing Austrian Freedom Party of Austria split to form the Liberal Forum in protest against the increasing nationalistic bent of the party.
Mani pulite scandal: Italian legislator Claudio Martelli resigns, followed by various politicians over the next two weeks.
Prime Minister of Canada Brian Mulroney resigns amidst political and economic turmoil. Kim Campbell, his successor, becomes Canada’s first female Prime Minister.
World Trade Center bombing: In New York City, a van bomb parked below the North Tower of the World Trade Center explodes
1993 Bombay bombings: Several bombs explode in Bombay, India, killing 257 and injuring hundreds more.
North Korea nuclear weapons program: North Korea announces that it plans to withdraw from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and refuses to allow inspectors access to nuclear sites.
A 51-day stand-off at the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas, ends with a fire
an Iraqi plot to assassinate former U.S. President George H. W. Bush during his visit to Kuwait in mid-April.
The 7.7 Mw Hokkaidō earthquake affected northern Japan
Oslo I Accord: PLO leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin shake hands in Washington, D.C., after signing a peace accord.
( Incontro fra Trump e Kim a Singapore per un accordo sulla rinuncia al nucleare del Nord e la pace fra le nazioni )
September 22 – Big Bayou Canot train disaster: A bridge collapses as the Sunset Limited crosses it, killing 47.
Battle of Mogadishu: The U.S. Army conducts Operation Gothic Serpent in the city of Mogadishu, Somalia, using Task Force Ranger. Two U.S. Army UH-60 Blackhawks are shot down and the operation leaves over 1,000 Somalians dead and over 73 Americans WIA, 18 KIA, and 1 captured.
The Russian constitutional crisis culminates with Russian military and security forces clearing the White House of Russia Parliament building by force, quashing a mass uprising against President Boris Yeltsin.
China performs a nuclear test, ending a worldwide de facto moratorium.
A coup in Burundi results in the death of president Melchior Ndadaye and sparks the Burundi Civil War.
The Maastricht Treaty takes effect, formally establishing the European Union.
Bosnian Croat forces destroy the Stari Most, or Old Bridge of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, by tank fire.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) passes the legislative houses in the United States, Canada and Mexico.
One of the three blocks of the Highland Towers near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia collapses, killing 48.
The European Exchange Rate Mechanism is put in crisis, mainly from speculation against the French franc.
Stephen Hawking’s A Brief History of Time becomes the longest-running book on the bestseller list of The Sunday Times ever. ( * Quest’ anno è morto )

1996
Colombo Central Bank bombing: an explosives-filled truck rams into the gates of the Central Bank in Colombo, Sri Lanka, killing at least 86 people and injuring 1,400.
The Bosnian government declares the end of the Siege of Sarajevo.
Dunblane massacre: Unemployed former shopkeeper Thomas Hamilton walks into the Dunblane Primary School in Scotland and opens fire, killing sixteen infant school pupils and one teacher before committing suicide.
Massacres of Hutus by Tutsis in Burundi take place, with more than 450 killed within a few days.
Port Arthur massacre: Martin Bryant kills 35 people at the Port Arthur tourist site in Tasmania, Australia.
The MV Bukoba sinks in Tanzanian waters in Lake Victoria, killing nearly 1,000 people in one of Africa’s worst maritime disasters.
At least 136 people are dead and more than 100 others are missing after a ferry capsizes in Lake Victoria, Tanzania. 20 Settembre 2018 )
Albania’s general election of May 26 is declared unfair by international monitors
, and the ruling Democratic Party under President Sali Berisha is charged by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe with rigging the elections. Several hundred protestors gather in Tirana to demonstrate against the election result.
Paris and Rome-bound TWA Flight 800 (Boeing 747) explodes off the coast of Long Island, New York, killing all 230 people on board.
Osama bin Laden writes “The Declaration of Jihad on the Americans Occupying the Country of the Two Sacred Places,” a call for the removal of American military forces from Saudi Arabia.
In Afghanistan, the Taliban capture the capital city of Kabul
Economy of Venezuela: Inflation in the country peaks at 99.87%.

1981
Greece enters the European Economic Community, predecessor of the European Union.
Iran releases the 52 Americans held for 444 days minutes after Ronald Reagan is sworn in as the 40th President of the United States, ending the Iran hostage crisis.
Antonio Tejero, with members of the Guardia Civil, enters the Spanish Congress of Deputies and stops the session where Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo is about to be named president of the government. The coup d’état fails thanks to King Juan Carlos.
A powerful, M  6.7 magnitude earthquake hits Athens
, killing 22 people, injuring 400 people and destroying several buildings and 4,000 houses, mostly in Corinth and the nearby towns of Loutraki, Kiato and Xylokastro.
( https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incendi_dell%27Attica_del_2018 ) ( Uno dei più letali incendi del secolo colpisce l’ Attica Greca devastando villaggi e luoghi turistici )
In Italy the Propaganda Due Masonic Lodge is discovered.
U.S. President Ronald Reagan is shot in the chest outside a Washington, D.C. hotel by John Hinckley, Jr.; 2 police officers and Press Secretary James Brady are also wounded.
The Space Shuttle program: Space Shuttle Columbia with NASA astronauts John Young and Robert Crippen launches on the STS-1 mission, returning to Earth on April 14. It is the first time a manned reusable spacecraft has returned from orbit.
( Elon Musk lancia un auto nello spazio e rivoluziona la tecnologia del lancio di razzi, 2018 )
The Pope John Paul II is shot and nearly killed by Mehmet Ali Ağca, a Turkish gunman who is allegedly on orders from the Soviet KGB to shoot him, as he enters St. Peter’s Square in Vatican City to address a general audience. The Pope recovers.
Israeli Air Force destroys Iraq’s Osirak nuclear reactor killing ten Iraqi troops and a French technician.
Israeli aircraft bomb Beirut, destroying multi-story apartment blocks containing the offices of PLO associated groups, killing approximately 300 civilians and resulting in worldwide condemnation and a U.S. embargo on the export of aircraft to Israel
A worldwide television audience of over 700 million people watch the Wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer at St Paul’s Cathedral in London.
(
Matrimonio reale del 2018 )
Egyptian president Anwar Sadat is assassinated during a parade by army members who belong to the Egyptian Islamic Jihad organization led by Khalid Islambouli; they opposed his negotiations with Israel.
Sep 11 2018 Russia launches its largest military exercise since 1981 involving 300,000 personal with Chinese troops participating

1986
South Yemen civil war
Shuttle challenger disaster –  2018 Soyuz MS-10, carrying a cosmonaut and an astronaut to the International Space Station, is forced to make an emergency landing in Kazakhstan after a failure with its Soyuz-FG rocket.
The snap presidential election in the Philippines earlier announced by President Ferdinand Marcos was held amidst controversy that would pave the way for a chain of protests culminating in the People Power Revolution.
The People Power Revolution begins in the Philippines to remove President Ferdinand Marcos from office.
The 27th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union opens in Moscow. The General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev introduces the keywords of his mandate to the audience: Glasnost and Perestroika.
President Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines goes into exile
in Hawaii after 20 years of rule; Corazon Aquino becomes the first Filipino woman president, first as an interim president. Salvador Laurel becomes her Vice President.
Swedish prime minister is killed in the streets of Stockholm
In a Black Sea incident, American cruiser USS Yorktown and the destroyer USS Caron, claiming the right of innocent passage, enter the Soviet territorial waters near the southern Crimean Peninsula.
The West Berlin discothèque La Belle, a known hangout for United States soldiers, is bombed, killing three and injuring 230; Libya is held responsible.
At least 15 people die after United States planes bomb targets in the Libyan capital, Tripoli, and the Benghazi region.
A mishandled safety test at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Pripyat, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union “killed at least 4,056 people and damaged almost $7 billion of property”.[5] Radioactive fallout from the accident is concentrated near Belarus, Ukraine and Russia and at least 350,000 people are forcibly resettled away from these areas. After the accident, “traces of radioactive deposits unique to Chernobyl were in nearly every country in the northern hemisphere”.

http://hrnww.com/2018/10/09/thousands-evacuated-after-ukraine-ammo-dump-blasts/

May 23 – Somali President Siad Barre is injured in a car accident in Mogadishu and taken to Saudi Arabia for treatment. Somali opposition groups see this as an opportunity to try and remove Barre, beginning the Somali Civil War.
August 20 – In Edmond, Oklahoma, United States Postal Service employee Patrick Sherrill guns down 14 of his co-workers before committing suicide.
August 21 – The Lake Nyos disaster, a limnic eruption, occurs in Cameroon, killing nearly 2,000 people.
The Soviet passenger liner SS Admiral Nakhimov collides with the bulk carrier Pyotr Vasev in the Black Sea and sinks almost immediately, killing 398.
September 5 – Pan Am Flight 73, with 358 people on board, is hijacked at Karachi International Airport by four Abu Nidal terrorists.
In Istanbul, two Abu Nidal terrorists kill 22 and wound 6 inside the Neve Shalom Synagogue during Shabbat services.
September 13 – The 6.0 Mw Kalamata earthquake shook southern Greece with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). The shock left at least 20 dead, 300 injured, and caused $5 million in damage.
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incendi_dell%27Attica_del_2018 ) ( Uno dei più letali incendi del secolo colpisce l’ Attica Greca devastando villaggi e luoghi turistici )
The first commercially available 3D printer is sold.

 1973
The United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and Denmark enter the European Economic Community, which later becomes the European Union.
( Continua procedimento per la Brexit, uscita del Regno Unito dall’ Unione Europea )
January 7 – Mark Essex kills nine people at the Howard Johnson’s hotel in downtown New Orleans.
January 15 – Vietnam War: Citing progress in peace negotiations, U.S. President Richard Nixon announces the suspension of offensive action in North Vietnam.
( Negoziazioni di pace fra le Coree in atto, 2018 )
January 17 – Ferdinand Marcos becomes President for Life of the Philippines.
U.S. President Richard Nixon announces that a peace accord has been reached in Vietnam.
( Negoziazioni di pace fra le Coree in atto, 2018 )
U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War ends with the signing of the Paris Peace Accords.

The first American prisoners of war are released from Vietnam.
Following President Richard Nixon’s visit to mainland China, the United States and the People’s Republic of China agree to establish liaison offices.
April 3 – The first handheld mobile phone call is made by Martin Cooper of Motorola in New York City.
The Ezeiza massacre occurs in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Snipers shoot at left-wing Peronists, killing at least 13 and injuring more than 300.
Former White House aide Alexander Butterfield informs the United States Senate Watergate Committee that President Richard Nixon had secretly recorded potentially incriminating conversations.
… members open fire at the Athens airport; 3 are killed, 55 injured.
Chile’s democratically elected government is overthrown in a military coup after serious instability. President Salvador Allende allegedly commits suicide during the coup in the presidential palace, and General Augusto Pinochet heads a U.S.-backed military junta that governs Chile for the next 16 years.
The fourth and largest Arab–Israeli conflict begins, as Egyptian and Syrian forces attack Israeli forces in the Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights on Yom Kippur.
… resigns as Vice President of the United States
Students revolt in Bangkok – In the Thammasat student uprising over 100,000 people protest in Thailand against the Thanom military government, 77 are killed and 857 are injured by soldiers, Thailand.
October 17 – An OPEC oil embargo against several countries supporting Israel triggers the 1973 energy crisis.
December 20 – Spanish prime minister Luis Carrero Blanco is assassinated in Madrid by the separatist organization ETA.

1974 – 2018/ 2019
Fire breaks out in the Joelma Building in São Paulo, Brazil; 177 die, 293 are injured, 11 die later of their injuries.
( Incendio devasta opere d’ arte e altri reperti storici in un importante museo Brasiliano, 2 settembre 2018 )
End of five month oil embargo by most OPEC nations against the United States, Europe and Japan which had caused the 1973 oil crisis.
April 3–4 – An enormous tornado outbreak strikes the central parts of the United States, killing around 319 people. Known as the “1974 Super Outbreak”, the event was the largest of its kind
April 5 – Stephen King publishes Carrie, his first novel.
April 25 – Carnation Revolution: A left-wing military coup in Portugal restores democracy, ending 48 years of Estado Novo and Ditadura Nacional dictatorship in the country.
May 17 – Dublin and Monaghan bombings: The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), explode four car bombs in Dublin and Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland. The attacks kill 33 civilians and wound almost 300, the highest number of casualties in any single day during “The Troubles”.
July 20 – The Turkish invasion of Cyprus occurs.
August 4 – A bomb explodes in a train between Italy and West Germany, killing 12 and wounding 48. Italian neo-fascists take responsibility.
August 9 – Watergate scandal: U.S. President Richard Nixon announces his resignation on August 8, effective at noon on August 9. Vice President Gerald Ford is sworn in as the 38th President of the United States upon Nixon’s resignation.
President Gerald Ford pardons former president Richard Nixon.
November 16 – Arecibo message: The radio telescope at the Arecibo Observatory on Puerto Rico sends an interstellar radio message towards Messier 13, the Great Globular Cluster in Hercules.
November 21 – Birmingham pub bombings: In Birmingham, England, two pubs are bombed, killing 21 people in an attack widely believed at the time to be linked to the Provisional Irish Republican Army.
December 24–25 – Darwin, Australia is almost completely destroyed by Cyclone Tracy.

La erupción del volcán de Fuego de 1974 fueron una serie de importantes eventos telúricos que afectaron a ese estratovolcán y a los departamentos de Sacatepéquez, Escuintla, Chimaltenango y Retalhule en Guatemala desde el 15 de octubre de 1974. Los daños económicos fueron altos, ya que se dañaron grandes aérea de cultivo de café, plátano y ajonjolí.

Eruzione di Fuego del 2018 e del 1974
2001
January 15 – Wikipedia is launched
January 26 – The 7.7 Mw Gujarat earthquake shakes Western India with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme), leaving 13,805–20,023 dead and about 166,800 injured.
the first spacecraft to land on an asteroid.
Former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia President Slobodan Milošević surrenders to police special forces, to be tried on charges of war crimes.
April 28 – Soyuz TM-32 lifts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, carrying the first space tourist, American Dennis Tito.
A Hamas suicide bomber kills 21, mostly teenagers, in the Dolphinarium disco in Tel Aviv, Israel.
June 23 – The 8.4 Mw southern Peru earthquake shakes coastal Peru with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). A destructive tsunami followed, leaving at least 75 people dead, and 2,687 injured.
The People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation sign the 2001 Sino-Russian Treaty of Friendship (“Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation”).
July 20–22 – The 27th G8 summit takes place in Genoa, Italy. Massive demonstrations are held against the meeting by members of the anti-globalization movement. One demonstrator, Carlo Giuliani, is killed by a policeman. Several others are badly injured during a police attack on a school used by the protesters as their headquarters.
( Crollo del Ponte Morandi di Genova riporta la città nelle notizie internazionali )
August 9 – A Sbarro restaurant in Jerusalem is attacked by a Palestinian militant, who kills 15 civilians and wounds 130.
September 10
Donald Rumsfeld gives a speech regarding $2.3 trillion in Pentagon spending that cannot be accounted for. He identifies the Pentagon bureaucracy as the biggest threat to America
September 11 – Around 2,996 victims are killed or fatally injured in the September 11 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City, The Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and in rural Shanksville, Pennsylvania after American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 are hijacked and crash into the World Trade Center’s Twin Towers, American Airlines Flight 77 is hijacked and crashes into the Pentagon, and United Airlines Flight 93 is hijacked and crashes into grassland in Shanksville, due to the passengers fighting to regain control of the airplane. The World Trade Center towers collapse as a result of the crashes.
September 17 – The New York Stock Exchange reopens for trading after the September 11 attacks, the longest closure since the Great Depression.
September 18 – The 2001 anthrax attacks commence as letters containing anthrax spores are mailed from Princeton, New Jersey, to ABC News, CBS News, NBC News, the New York Post, and the National Enquirer. Twenty-two people in total are exposed, with five resulting fatalities.
September 20 – In an address to a joint session of Congress and the American people, U.S. President George W. Bush declares a “War on Terror”.
September 21
In Toulouse, France, the AZote Fertilisant chemical factory explodes, killing 29 and seriously wounding over 2,500.
Increased racial tensions in Peterborough, England, following the September 11 attacks result in the murder of Ross Parker by a gang of ten Muslims in a racially motivated attack.
September 27 – Zug massacre: In Zug, Switzerland, Friedrich Leibacher shoots 18 citizens, killing 14 and then himself.
October 7 – War in Afghanistan: In response to the September 11 attacks, the United States invades Afghanistan, with participation from other nations, thus officially beginning the War on Terror.
October 8
A twin engine Cessna and Scandinavian Airlines jetliner collide in heavy fog during takeoff from Milan, Italy, killing 118 people.
October 9 – Second mailing of anthrax letters from Trenton, New Jersey in the 2001 anthrax attacks.
October 17 – Israeli tourism minister Rehavam Ze’evi becomes the first Israeli minister to be assassinated in a terrorist attack.
the first atmosphere detected on an extrasolar planet.
December 2
Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection 5 days after Dynegy cancels a US$8.4 billion buyout bid (to this point, the largest bankruptcy in U.S. history).
1998–2002 Argentine great depression: Corralito – The government effectively freezes all bank accounts for twelve months leading to December 2001 riots in Argentina.
Richard Reid attempts to destroy a passenger airliner by igniting explosives hidden in his shoes aboard American Airlines Flight 63.
Tropical Storm Vamei forms within 1.5 degrees of the equator. No other tropical cyclone in recorded history has come as close to the equator.

1966
bloody military coup is staged in Nigeria, deposing the civilian government and resulting in the death of Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa.
A B-52 bomber collides with a KC-135 Stratotanker over Spain, dropping three 70-kiloton hydrogen bombs near the town of Palomares, and one into the sea, in the 1966 Palomares B-52 crash.
February 23 – An intra-party military coup d’état in Syria replaces the previous government of Amin al-Hafiz by one led by Salah Jadid.
Soviet space probe Venera 3 crashes on Venus, becoming the first spacecraft to land on another planet’s surface.
The Communist Party of China issues the ‘May 16 Notice’, marking the beginning of the Cultural Revolution.
Topeka, Kansas is devastated by a tornado that registers as an “F5” on the Fujita scale, the first to exceed US $100 million in damages. Sixteen people are killed, hundreds more injured, and thousands of homes damaged or destroyed, and the campus of Washburn University suffers catastrophic damage.
Sniper Charles Whitman kills 14 people and wounds 32 from atop the University of Texas at Austin Main Building tower, after earlier killing his wife and mother.
In the People’s Republic of China, Mao Zedong begins the Cultural Revolution to purge and reorganize China’s Communist Party.
While waiting at a bus stop Ralph Baer, an inventor with Sanders Associates, writes a four-page document that lays out the basic principles for creating a video game to be played on a television: the beginning of a multibillion-dollar industry.
South African Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd is stabbed to death in Parliament by Dimitri Tsafendas.
September 29 – Hurricane Inez strikes Hispaniola, leaving thousands dead and tens of thousands homeless in the Dominican Republic and Haiti.
LSD is made illegal in the United States and controlled so strictly that not only are possession and recreational use criminalized, but all legal scientific research programs on the drug in the US are shut down as well.
October 7 – The Soviet Union declares that all Chinese students must leave the country before the end of October.
The Aberfan disaster occurs in South Wales, United Kingdom.
In Italy, a flood of the Arno River hits Florence, flooding it to a maximum depth of 6.7 m (22 ft), leaving thousands homeless and destroying millions of masterpieces of art and rare books. In addition, a severe tidal flood hits Venice.
Walt Disney dies while producing The Jungle Book, the last animated feature under his personal supervision.

8 settembre 1966 – debutta Star Trek
19 settembre 2018 – scoperto pianeta della serie Star Trek esiste davvero

 
Astronomers discover a exoplanet located in the 40 Eridani star system mentioned in the Star Trek series where the planet Vulcan is located. (Forbes) (SYFY)

1931
Hawke’s Bay earthquake: Much of the New Zealand cities of Napier and Hastings are destroyed in an earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale killing 256 people.
Soviet leader Joseph Stalin gives speech calling for rapid industrialization, arguing that only strong industrialized countries will win wars while “weak” nations are “beaten”. Stalin states : “We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years. Either we do it, or they will crush us.” Intensification of the first five-year plan in the Soviet Union for industrialization and collectivization of agriculture.

Municipal elections in Spain, which are treated as a virtual referendum on the monarchy, result in the triumph for the republican parties.
The Second Spanish Republic is proclaimed in Madrid. Meanwhile, as a result of the victory of the Republican Left of Catalonia, Francesc Macià proclaims in Barcelona the Catalan Republic, as state of the Iberian Federation.
After the negotiations between the republican ministers of Spain and Catalonia, the Catalan Republic becomes into Generalitat of Catalonia, a Catalan autonomous government inside the Spanish Republic.
Austria, the UK, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the United States recognize the Spanish Republic.
Construction of the Empire State Building is completed in New York City.
beginning of the banking collapse in Central Europe that causes a worldwide financial meltdown.
German Chancellor  Dr. Heinrich Brüning visits London, where he warns the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald that the collapse of the Austrian banking system, caused by the bankruptcy of the Creditanstalt, has left the entire German banking system on the verge of collapse.
Saint-Philibert disaster: the overloaded pleasure craft Saint-Philibert, carrying trippers home to Nantes from the Île de Noirmoutier, sinks at the mouth of the river Loire in France; over 450 drown.
In an attempt to stop the banking crisis in Central Europe from causing a worldwide financial meltdown, U.S. President Herbert Hoover issues the Hoover Moratorium.
The 1931 China floods reach their peak in possibly the deadliest natural disaster yet recorded.
Run on the British pound leads to political and economic crisis in Britain.
Japanese military stage the Mukden Incident as a pretext for the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
With a gun literally pointed to his head, the Chinese commander of Kirin province announces the annexation of that territory to Japan.
The Chinese Soviet Republic is proclaimed by Mao Zedong.
The Spanish Constituent Cortes approves the Spanish Constitution of 1931, effectively establishing the Second Spanish Republic.


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